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It was filmed mostly with a superimposition chroma key technique, to help replicate the imagery of the original comic book.
The story is framed by a voice-over narrative by the Spartan soldier Dilios David Wenham. Through this narrative technique , various fantastical creatures are introduced, placing within the genre of historical fantasy.
Critics praised its visuals and style but criticised its depiction of the Persians , which some characterized as bigoted or Iranophobic.
A sequel , titled Rise of an Empire , based on Miller's previously unpublished graphic novel prequel Xerxes , was released on March 7, In B.
Dilios's story continues and a Persian herald arrives at the gates of Sparta demanding " earth and water " as a token of submission to King Xerxes —the Spartans reply by throwing the envoy and his escort into a deep well.
Leonidas then visits the Ephors , proposing a strategy to drive back the numerically superior Persians through the Hot Gates.
His plan involves building a wall in order to funnel the Persians into a narrow pass between the rocks and the sea : negating the Persian advantage in numbers, and giving the Greeks' heavy infantry the advantage over the vast waves of Persian light infantry.
The Ephors consult the Oracle , who decrees that Sparta may not go to war during the Carneia. As Leonidas angrily departs, an agent from Xerxes appears, rewarding the Ephors for their covert support.
Although the Ephors have denied him permission to mobilize Sparta's army, Leonidas gathers three hundred of his best soldiers in the guise of his personal bodyguard.
They are joined along the way by a few thousand Arcadians. At Thermopylae, they construct the wall, using slain Persian scouts as mortar.
Stelios, an elite Spartan soldier, orders an enraged Persian emissary to return to his lines and warn Xerxes, after cutting off his whipping arm.
Meanwhile, Leonidas encounters Ephialtes , a deformed Spartan whose parents fled Sparta to spare him certain infanticide.
Ephialtes asks to redeem his father's name by joining Leonidas' army, warning him of a secret path the Persians could use to outflank and surround the Spartans.
Though sympathetic, Leonidas rejects him since his deformity physically prevents him from holding his shield high enough, potentially compromising the phalanx formation.
The battle begins soon after the Spartans' refusal to lay down their weapons. Using the Hot Gates to their advantage, as well as their superior fighting skills, the Spartans repel wave after wave of the advancing Persian army.
Xerxes personally approaches Leonidas and offers him wealth and power in exchange for his submission. Leonidas declines and mocks the inferior quality of Xerxes' fanatical warriors.
In response, Xerxes sends in his elite guard, the Immortals ; the Spartans nonetheless defeat them with few losses, with slight help from the Thespians.
On the second day, Xerxes sends in new waves of armies from Asia and other Persian subject states, including war elephants , to crush the Spartans, but to no avail.
Meanwhile, an embittered Ephialtes defects to Xerxes to whom he reveals the secret path in exchange for wealth, luxury, women, and a Persian uniform.
The Arcadians retreat upon learning of Ephialtes' betrayal, but the Spartans stay. Leonidas orders an injured but reluctant Dilios to return to Sparta and tell them of what has happened: a "tale of victory".
Theron, a corrupt politician, claims that he "owns" the Council and threatens the Queen, who reluctantly submits to his sexual demands in return for his help.
When Theron disgraces her in front of the Council, Gorgo kills him out of rage, revealing within his robe a bag of Xerxes' gold. Marking his betrayal, the Council unanimously agrees to send reinforcements.
On the third day, the Persians, led by Ephialtes, traverse the secret path, encircling the Spartans. Xerxes' general again demands their surrender.
Leonidas seemingly kneels in submission, allowing Stelios to leap over him and kill the general. Angered, Xerxes orders his troops to attack.
Leonidas throws his spear at Xerxes, barely missing him; the spear cuts across and wounds his face, proving the God-King 's mortality.
Leonidas and the remaining Spartans fight to the last man until they finally succumb to an arrow barrage. Dilios, now back in Sparta, concludes his tale before the Council.
Inspired by Leonidas' sacrifice, the Greeks mobilize. One year later, the Persians face an army of 30, free Greeks led by a vanguard of 10, Spartans.
After one final speech commemorating the , Dilios, now head of the Spartan Army, leads them to war, against the Persians across the fields of Plataea.
Producer Gianni Nunnari was not the only person planning a film about the Battle of Thermopylae ; director Michael Mann already planned a film of the battle based on the book Gates of Fire.
Nunnari discovered Frank Miller's graphic novel , which impressed him enough to acquire the film rights. Gordon wrote the script.
The film is a shot-for-shot adaptation of the comic book , similar to the film adaptation of Sin City. Snyder used this narrative technique to show the audience that the surreal "Frank Miller world" of was told from a subjective perspective.
By using Dilios' gift of storytelling, he was able to introduce fantasy elements into the film, explaining that "Dilios is a guy who knows how not to wreck a good story with truth.
Two months of pre-production were required to create hundreds of shields, spears, and swords, some of which were recycled from Troy and Alexander.
Creatures were designed by Jordu Schell ,  and an animatronic wolf and thirteen animatronic horses were created. The actors trained alongside the stuntmen, and even Snyder joined in.
Upwards of costumes were created for the film, as well as extensive prosthetics for various characters and the corpses of Persian soldiers. Shaun Smith and Mark Rappaport worked hand in hand with Snyder in pre-production to design the look of the individual characters, and to produce the prosthetic makeup effects, props, weapons and dummy bodies required for the production.
Butler said that while he did not feel constrained by Snyder's direction, fidelity to the comic imposed certain limitations on his performance.
Wenham said there were times when Snyder wanted to precisely capture iconic moments from the comic book, and other times when he gave actors freedom "to explore within the world and the confines that had been set".
Post-production was handled by Montreal's Meteor Studios and Hybride Technologies filled in the bluescreen footage with more than 1, visual effects shots.
Visual effects supervisor Chris Watts and production designer Jim Bissell created a process dubbed "The Crush,"  which allowed the Meteor artists to manipulate the colors by increasing the contrast of light and dark.
Certain sequences were desaturated and tinted to establish different moods. Ghislain St-Pierre, who led the team of artists, described the effect: "Everything looks realistic, but it has a kind of a gritty illustrative feel.
In July , composer Tyler Bates began work on the film, describing the score as having "beautiful themes on the top and large choir," but "tempered with some extreme heaviness".
The composer had scored for a test scene that the director wanted to show to Warner Bros. Bates said that the score had "a lot of weight and intensity in the low end of the percussion" that Snyder found agreeable to the film.
The score has caused some controversy in the film composer community, garnering criticism for its striking similarity to several other recent soundtracks, including James Horner and Gabriel Yared 's work for the film Troy.
The heaviest borrowings are said to be from Elliot Goldenthal 's score for Titus. Pictures acknowledged in an official statement:. Warner Bros.
Pictures has great respect for Elliot, our longtime collaborator, and is pleased to have amicably resolved this matter.
The official website was launched by Warner Bros. The "conceptual art" and Zack Snyder's production blog were the initial attractions of the site.
In January , the studio launched a MySpace page for the film. At Comic-Con International in July , the panel aired a promotional teaser of the film, which was positively received.
A second trailer, which was attached to Apocalypto , was released in theaters on December 8, ,  and online the day before. In April , Warner Bros.
Interactive Entertainment announced its intention to make a PlayStation Portable game, March to Glory , based on the film.
Collision Studios worked with Warner Bros. In August , Warner Bros. On July 21, , Warner Bros. This new Blu-ray Disc is encased in a page Digibook and includes all the extras from the original release as well as some new ones.
These features include a picture-in-picture feature entitled The Complete A Comprehensive Immersion , which enables the viewer to view the film in three different perspectives.
This release also includes a digital copy. TNT agreed to a three-year deal instead of the more typical five-year deal. Once you make a great movie, word can spread very quickly.
Since its world premiere at the Berlin International Film Festival on February 14, , in front of 1, audience members, it received a standing ovation at the public premiere,  it was panned at a press screening hours earlier, where many attendees left during the showing and those who remained booed at the end.
The site's critical consensus read, "A simple-minded but visually exciting experience, full of blood, violence, and ready-made movie quotes.
Some of the most unfavorable reviews came from major American newspapers. Scott of The New York Times describes as "about as violent as Apocalypto and twice as stupid," while criticizing its color scheme and suggesting that its plot includes racist undertones; Scott also poked fun at the buffed bodies of the actors portraying the Spartans, declaring that the Persian characters are "pioneers in the art of face-piercing", but that the Spartans had access to "superior health clubs and electrolysis facilities".
Variety 's Todd McCarthy describes the film as "visually arresting" although "bombastic"  while Kirk Honeycutt, writing in The Hollywood Reporter , praises the "beauty of its topography , colors and forms".
In the actual historical event, by the time of the Battle of Thermopylae the Spartans had already entered into an alliance with other Greek poleis against the Persians.
Like during the Battle of Marathon 10 years before in , the time of Xerxes's invasion of Greece coincided with a Spartan religious festival, the Carneia , in which the Spartans were not permitted to make war.
Still, realizing the threat of the Persians, and not wanting to appear as Persian sympathizers, the Spartan government—rather than Leonidas alone—decided to send Leonidas with his personal strong bodyguard to Thermopylae.
The historical consensus among both ancient chroniclers and current scholars was that Thermopylae was a clear Greek defeat; the Persian invasion would be pushed back in later ground and naval battles.
Since few records about the actual martial arts used by the Spartans survive aside from accounts of formations and tactics, the fight choreography led by stunt coordinator and fight choreographer Damon Caro, was a synthesis of different weapon arts with Filipino martial arts as the base.
The Spartans' use of the narrow terrain, in those particular circumstances, is a military tactic known as " defeat in detail ".
Paul Cartledge , Professor of Greek History at Cambridge University , advised the filmmakers on the pronunciation of Greek names, and said they "made good use" of his published work on Sparta.
He praises the film for its portrayal of "the Spartans' heroic code", and of "the key role played by women in backing up, indeed reinforcing, the male martial code of heroic honour", while expressing reservations about its " 'West' goodies vs 'East' baddies polarization".
Ephraim Lytle, assistant professor of Hellenistic History at the University of Toronto , said selectively idealizes Spartan society in a "problematic and disturbing" fashion, as well as portraying the "hundred nations of the Persians" as monsters and non-Spartan Greeks as weak.
He suggests that the film's moral universe would have seemed "as bizarre to ancient Greeks as it does to modern historians". Leonidas points out that his hunched back means Ephialtes cannot lift his shield high enough to fight in the phalanx.
This is a transparent defence of Spartan eugenics , and convenient given that infanticide could as easily have been precipitated by an ill-omened birthmark.
Victor Davis Hanson , National Review columnist and former professor of Classical history at California State University, Fresno , who wrote the foreword to a re-issue of the graphic novel, said the film demonstrates a specific affinity with the original material of Herodotus in that it captures the martial ethos of ancient Sparta and represents Thermopylae as a "clash of civilizations".
He remarks that Simonides , Aeschylus , and Herodotus viewed Thermopylae as a battle against "Eastern centralism and collective serfdom", which opposed "the idea of the free citizen of an autonomous polis ".
Some passages from the Classical authors Aeschylus , Diodorus , Herodotus and Plutarch are split over the movie to give it an authentic flavor.
Aeschylus becomes a major source when the battle with the "monstrous human herd" of the Persians is narrated in the film. Diodorus' statement about Greek valor to preserve their liberty is inserted in the film, but his mention of Persian valor is omitted.
Herodotus' fanciful numbers are used to populate the Persian army, and Plutarch's discussion of Greek women, specifically Spartan women, is inserted wrongly in the dialogue between the " misogynist " Persian ambassador and the Spartan king.
Classical sources are certainly used, but exactly in all the wrong places, or quite naively. The Athenians were fighting a sea battle during this.
It's about the romanticizing of the Spartan 'ideal', a process that began even in ancient times, was promoted by the Romans, and has survived over time while less and less resembling the actual historical Sparta.
The director of , Zack Snyder , stated in an MTV interview that "the events are 90 percent accurate. It's just in the visualization that it's crazy I've shown this movie to world-class historians who have said it's amazing.
They can't believe it's as accurate as it is. That's what I say when people say it's historically inaccurate". He also describes the film's narrator, Dilios, as "a guy who knows how not to wreck a good story with truth".
In an interview writer Frank Miller said, "The inaccuracies, almost all of them, are intentional. I took those chest plates and leather skirts off of them for a reason.
I wanted these guys to move and I wanted 'em to look good. I knocked their helmets off a fair amount, partly so you can recognize who the characters are.
Spartans, in full regalia, were almost indistinguishable except at a very close angle. Another liberty I took was, they all had plumes, but I only gave a plume to Leonidas, to make him stand out and identify him as a king.
I was looking for more an evocation than a history lesson. The best result I can hope for is that if the movie excites someone, they'll go explore the histories themselves.
Because the histories are endlessly fascinating. Kaveh Farrokh , in a paper entitled "The Movie: Separating Fact from Fiction",  notes that the film falsely portrays "the Greco-Persian Wars in binary terms: the democratic, good, rational 'Us' versus the tyrannical, evil and irrational, 'other' of the ever-nebulous if not exotic 'Persia ' ".
He highlights three points regarding the contribution of the Achaemenid Empire to the creation of democracy and human rights. This was the first time in history that a world power had guaranteed the survival of the Jewish people, religion, customs and culture.
The Persians really used elephants in combat, but not during the first two wars against the Greeks; historical sources say that the first time the Greeks encountered elephants was in the battle of Gaugamela , won by Alexander the Great , one hundred and fifty years later.
Moreover, it is absolutely impossible that Persians used African rhinoceros like that shown in the film, also given the impossibility of training them for any purpose, as borne out by animal behavior's scientists.
According to the Spartan tradition, newborns were inspected and discarded in case of deformity or weakness, but they were not pushed down a cliff as shown in the film.
Before the release of , Warner Bros. Snyder relates that there was "a huge sensitivity about East versus West with the studio". Snyder replied that, while he was aware that people would read the film through the lens of current events, no parallels between the film and the modern world were intended.
Outside the current political parallels, some critics have raised more general questions about the film's ideological orientation. The New York Post ' s Kyle Smith wrote that the film would have pleased " Adolf 's boys,"  and Slate 's Dana Stevens compares the film to The Eternal Jew , "as a textbook example of how race-baiting fantasy and nationalist myth can serve as an incitement to total war.
Since it's a product of the post-ideological, post- Xbox 21st century, will instead be talked about as a technical achievement, the next blip on the increasingly blurry line between movies and video games.
Newsday critic Gene Seymour, on the other hand, stated that such reactions are misguided, writing that "the movie's just too darned silly to withstand any ideological theorizing".
They were the biggest slave owners in Greece. But at the same time, Spartan women had an unusual level of rights. It's a paradox that they were a bunch of people who in many ways were fascist , but they were the bulwark against the fall of democracy.
The closest comparison you can draw in terms of our own military today is to think of the red-caped Spartans as being like our special-ops forces.
They're these almost superhuman characters with a tremendous warrior ethic , who were unquestionably the best fighters in Greece. I didn't want to render Sparta in overly accurate terms, because ultimately I do want you to root for the Spartans.
I couldn't show them being quite as cruel as they were. I made them as cruel as I thought a modern audience could stand. Michael M.
Chemers, author of " ' With Your Shield, or on It': Disability Representation in " in the Disability Studies Quarterly , said that the film's portrayal of the hunchback and his story "is not mere ableism : this is anti-disability".
It would be much more classically Spartan if Leonidas laughed and kicked him off the cliff. From its opening, also attracted controversy over its portrayal of Persians.
Officials of the Iranian government  denounced the film. The film's portrayal of ancient Persians caused a particularly strong reaction in Iran.
Azadeh Moaveni of Time reported, "All of Tehran was outraged. Everywhere I went yesterday, the talk vibrated with indignation over the film".
Ayende-No , an independent Iranian newspaper, said that "[t]he film depicts Iranians as demons, without culture, feeling or humanity, who think of nothing except attacking other nations and killing people".
Moaveni identified two factors which may have contributed to the intensity of Iranian indignation over the film. First, she describes the timing of the film's release, on the eve of Norouz , the Persian New Year , as "inauspicious".
Second, Iranians tend to view the era depicted in the film as "a particularly noble page in their history". Moaveni also suggests that "the box office success of , compared with the relative flop of Alexander another spurious period epic dealing with Persians , is cause for considerable alarm, signaling ominous U.
According to The Guardian , Iranian critics of , ranging from bloggers to government officials, have described the movie "as a calculated attempt to demonise Iran at a time of intensifying U.
The film focused on the Athenian admiral, Themistocles , as portrayed by Australian actor Sullivan Stapleton. The sequel, Rise of an Empire , was released on March 7, We assume, that x is the value we are looking for.
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